Thursday, December 12, 2019
Relevance of Ethics Reviews in ICT Ã¢â¬ Free Samples to Students
Question: Discuss about the Relevance of Ethics Reviews in ICT. Answer: Introduction The ethical theory refers to the application of systematic concepts based on the right or wrong behaviour. The current philosophers have categorised the ethical theories into applied ethics, normative ethics and metaethics. The ethical theories play a crucial role in the decision-making process concerning every domain. These theories represent the viewpoint which helps different individuals and groups to take vital decisions. As per Eke, Stahl Fidler, the Big data revolution raises a number of ethical issues relating to the data privacy, transparency, confidentiality, identity, etc. Having an ethical control over these Big data aspects is vital so in the current business scenario (Eke, Stahl Fidler, 2015). Any current business firm must focus on the big data ethics and follow the four main principles so that the major big data norms are followed. It is of vital significance to convert these principles into strict rules and regulations so that the ethical aspects concerning Big data can be effectively managed. Some of the key ethical guidance mechanisms of Big data are the organisational principles, self-policing management, institutional statement of ethics, etc. As per Eustace Burmeister, there is scope to develop principles and laws that will enable the users to focus on all its ethical aspects and concerns. Below the different ethical theories like utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract have been used to understand various ethical issues that arise in the field of Big data (Eustace Burmeister, 2013). Utilitarianism Utilitarianism theory of ethical practices states that the best action is the one which increases the output. The utilitarian concept mainly relies on the theory of intrinsic value. The connection between the action and its outcome depends on the specific set of circumstances, thus no moral behaviour or principle is regarded as an absolute or a necessity under this ethical model. In case of Big data, high quantity of data or information is converted into data sets and stored using different kinds of network accessible infrastructure (Kim, Kim Lee, 2014). The volume of such data has been increasing since the past few years and it poses a number of challenges relating to the method that should be adopted to capture and save the data, process that needs to be followed in order to use the available information in an effective manner. As per Mann, et al., 201, current business undertakings understand the need of securely accessing different kinds of data by using various technology solutions so that the customers have an enriching experience and they get effective results (Mann, et al., 2015, September). A great progress has been made in the technological aspects but still the process has to be more firm so that the aggregation, analysis and presentation of data is different formats will be simpler and the end user will get utility out of it. This aspect of ethical theory states that all individuals must adhere to the obligations, responsibilities and duties. The firms or individuals who follow the deontological theory generally produce consistent results since their work process is consistent which is based on the particular individuals set responsibilities and duties. According to Noordin, in the current data age, all the confidential and personal information of millions of individuals is accessible from any part of the world. The internet has networked large number of database into single combined information platform. This approach has changed the processes of businesses (Noordin, 2013). This trend of data accumulation has raised numerous questions regarding the ethical boundaries that need to be followed for collecting and circulating personal data so that the privacy of individuals is not compromised (van Oortmerssen, 2014, May). Information privacy is vital since it includes the overall control over an individuals personal information. One of the major ethical issues is the correct use of personal information and the right of the individual or concern to information privacy (Pimple, et al., 2014, May). To manage and control this ethical concern the privacy self-management is vital. It encompasses a transparent record system of confidential personal data, right to prevent misuse of personal data without consent, right to modify or correct ones data, etc. All these steps can help in dealing with some ethical issues that arise in case of Big data. The virtue theory of ethics lays emphasis on developing positive habits so that it will help in building a strong and positive character. According to Plato there are four vital virtues namely justice, wisdom, courage and temperance. Other important virtues are sincerity, self-respect, etc. According to the theory, bad habits must be avoided like injustice, etc. (Tavani, 2013). But today there are major gaps between the process of Big data and the unanswered queries relating to its ethical aspects like virtue and integrity. The different kinds of information that is stored in the databases is so crucial and valuable for business firms that companies are unwilling to clean up the volume of data stored in a number of servers. Virtue is vital in any domain, especially in case of Big data since it encourages the capture of high-quality and comprehensive set of knowledge which will help various undertakings (Sibanda Maposa, 2013). Lack of control over the available data raises important issues relating to the overall process and functions of Big Data. There is need for virtuous individuals who deal with the huge set of data so its genuinely is not compromised and the general public or customer doesnt suffer. There is need for a right and appropriate external storage approach (Stahl, et al., 2014). The social contract theory refers to the philosophy which states that the morals and obligations of particular individuals depend on the contract or agreement among them that is established in the society in which they exist. Hence the various laws and rules are based on the social contract. Taking into account the vast technological innovation that is taking place in the current scenario. This advancement has an important impact on the social and cultural aspects. It is important to note that the advancement should not threaten human dignity or integrity. A vital aspect in the social contract theory is the assumption that there is a vital role of social and political order for the common interest of the society and its people. There is need to restrain firms have major amount of personal data with them by using appropriate legal rules and regulations. Conclusion Big Data subject is vast since it includes large data sets of confidential information. With the advancement in technology, the role of Big data has increased, but at the same time the various ethical issues that arise with the set of data has also increased. It is vital to understand the various ethical theories and the concerns that arise in the field of Big data. Firms need to think in a logical and sensible manner about the storage and use of the data in hand so that no one suffers. A few recommendations regarding to stricter laws and regulations, employment of integrated individuals has been included which suggests methods how the ethical issues that arise in the Big data scenario can be tackled. References Eke, D. O., Stahl, B. C., Fidler, C. (2015). Understanding the relevance of ethics reviews of ICT research in UK computing departments using dialectical hermeneutics.Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society,13(1), 28-38. Eustace, K., Burmeister, O. (2013). Ethics and Governance of ICT-based social engagement in institutional aged care.AiCE 2013, 18. Kim, H. S., Kim, J. M., Lee, W. G. (2014). IE behavior intent: A study on ICT ethics of college students in Korea.The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher,23(2), 237-247. Mann, S., Lopez, M., Lopez, D., Smith, N. (2015, September). Educating for ICT4S: Unpacking sustainability and ethics of ICT student intakes. InEnviroInfo and ICT for Sustainability 2015. Atlantis Press. Noordin, M. F. (2013). Application of privacy, security and ethics in Islamic concerned ICT.Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research,14(11), 1548-1554. Pimple, K. D., Jones, C., Miller, K. W., Searing, D. R., Seelman, K. D., Shilton, K. (2014, May). Panel-Ethics and pervasive ICT. InEthics in Science, Technology and Engineering, 2014 IEEE International Symposium on(pp. 1-2). IEEE. Sibanda, F., Maposa, R. S. (2013). The Ethics of ICT Assessment in Public Examinations: Reflections on the Zimbabwean Experience. Stahl, B. C., Heersmink, R., Goujon, P., Flick, C. (2014). Issues, concepts and methods relating to the identification of the ethics of emerging ICTs.Communications of the IIMA,10(1), 5. Tavani, H. T. (2013). ICT ethics bibliography 2012-2014: a select list of recent books.Ethics and Information Technology,15(3), 243. van Oortmerssen, G. (2014, May). Ethics and ICT: Beyond design. InProceedings of the IEEE 2014 International Symposium on Ethics in Engineering, Science, and Technology(p. 34). IEEE Press.