Saturday, March 14, 2020

Early History Of Judaism Essays - Monotheistic Religions

Early History Of Judaism Essays - Monotheistic Religions Early History Of Judaism Early History of Judaism- It has been argued that Judaism can be seen not only as a single religion, but as a group of similar religions. It has also been pointed-out that through all the trials and tribulations that Judaism has suffered through, that there have been common themes that have proven omni-pervasive. Any institution with roots as ancient and varied as the religion of the Jews is bound to have a few variations, especially when most of its history takes place in the political and theological hot spot of the Middle East. In this discussion, many facets of Judaism will be examined, primarily in the three temporal subdivisions labeled the Tribal / Pre-Monarchy Period, the Divided Monarchy, and the Hasmonean / Maccabean and Roman Era. Among all the time periods where the religion has been split, these three seem to be the most representative of the forces responsible. As for a common thread seen throughout all Judiasms, the area of focus here is the place associated with the religion : Jerusalem. This topic will be covered in detail first, and then the multiple Judaism arguments will be presented. In this way, it is possible to keep a common focus in mind when reading about all the other situations in which the religion has found itself. A brief conclusion follows the discussion. A Place to Call Home No other religion has ever been so attached to its birthplace as Judaism. Perhaps this is because Jews have been exiled and restricted from this place for most of their history. Jerusalem is not only home to Judaism, but to the Muslim and Christian religions as well. Historically this has made it quite a busy place for the various groups. Jerusalem is where the temple of the Jews once stood; the only place on the whole Earth where one could leave the confines of day to day life and get closer to God. In 586 BCE when the temple was destroyed, no Jew would have denied Jerusalem as being the geographic center of the religion. From that point on, the Jewish people have migrated around the world, but not one of them forgets the fact that Jerusalem is where it all began. It is truly a sacred place, and helps to define what Judaism means to many people; a common thread to run through all the various splinters of the religion and help hold them together. Even today, as the Jewish people have their precious Jerusalem back (through the help of other nations and their politics) there is great conflict and emotion surrounding it. Other nations and people in the area feel that they should be in control of the renowned city, and the Jews deny fervently any attempt to wrestle it from their occupation. It is true that there is no temple in Jeruslaem today, nor are all the Jews in the world rushing to get back there. But it is apparent that the city represents more to the religion of Judaism than a mere place to live and work. The city of Jerusalem is a spiritual epicenter, and throughout Judaisms long and varied history, this single fact has never changed. Tribal / Pre-Monarchy Judaisms roots lie far back in the beginnings of recorded history. The religion did not spring into existence exactly as it is known today, rather it was pushed and prodded by various environmental factors along the way. One of the first major influences on the religion was the Canaanite nation. Various theories exist as to how and when the people that would later be called Jews entered into this civilization. But regardless of how they ultimately got there, these pioneers of the new faith were subjected to many of the ideas and prejudices of the time. Any new society that finds itself in an existing social situation, can do no more than to try and integrate into that framework. And this is exactly what the Jews did. Early Judaism worshipped multiple gods. One of these gods was known as Baal, and was generally thought-of as a statue god with certain limitations on his power. The other primary deity was called YHWH (or Yahweh) and enjoyed a

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Political Sensibilities of Milk and Philadelphia( movies) Essay

Political Sensibilities of Milk and Philadelphia( movies) - Essay Example However, it is important to note that the film Philadelphia has more impact than Milk as far as raising political sensitivity on matter of homosexuality is concerned. Milk is about the last eight years of Harvey Milk’s life. Harvey Milk was not only a gay activist but also the first openly gay man to be elected into a major public office in America (Charity, 2008). On the other hand, Philadelphia is about the life of Andrew Beckett, a gay lawyer, who after contracting Aids is being hooded out of the law firm he practices law in (Perry, 2001). This film proceeds to illustrate the basic human rights and the needs of Andrew, his experience of alienation and vulnerability. It is however noteworthy that though Philadelphia affects the perspective of many Americans on matter of homosexuality it does not do it more vigorously as Milk. Milk and Philadelphia put gay subject matter into mainstream America, even though this subject was a taboo in 1990s when they were both released. In my opinion, the movie Milk changed the perspective of majority of Americans toward the homosexual population. In 1970s for instance, homosexual people enjoyed lesser liberty that the rest of the population which is not the case today courtesy of films like Milk and Philadelphia and gay right activists activities. To majority of American, homosexuality was wrong and immoral and therefore in their opinion unacceptable to them. Milk has a very big impact on our political view as far as homosexuality is concerned. It also compels us to pay close attention to the gay population and their rights. While it is utterly impossible to perfectly understand someone who does not come from your own background, and especially when it comes to matters of sexuality, people can almost experience it for a brief duration through the realistic visual of films. Films give people the insight they need to

Monday, February 10, 2020

The Return of Martin Guerre Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Return of Martin Guerre - Assignment Example The Return of Martin Guerre The new Martin Guerre was in fact Arnaud du Tilh from another village. The real Guerre had fled to Spain and fought in their war against his home country, where he lost one leg in battle. du Tilh, nicknamed â€Å"Pansette† (the belly) for his voracious appetite for life’s finer things (including women) was also something of a con man and spent years perfecting the Guerre persona, for Pansette also looked remarkably like Guerre. He fooled all the villagers, including Guerre’s sisters but the one person he didn’t hoodwink was Bertrande, Martin’s wife. However, Pansette was all of what Martin never had been, perhaps more of a man, and Bertrande helped the man perfect his lie, living with him as his wife. The one downfall for Pansette was when he sold some of the family holdings and demanded an accounting of his â€Å"father’s† estate from Uncle Pierre, the executor in Martin’s absence. Enraged, Pierre managed to gather enough doubt that Pansette was the real Martin and brought him to trial. With supporters on both sides, the judge craftily turned the case over to Parliament, whose agent decided Pansette was in fact probably Martin. In the midst of that confusion, the real Martin Guerre showed back up on his crutch and proved his identity to be true. Therefore Pansette was executed by hanging. Bertrande, because of her adultery, was sentenced to the same fate but only spared due to her being female. Instead she was forced to watch probably the only man she loved die and had to live with the man who deserted her. So what was life like for the peasant class of sixteenth century Europe, France in particular? For one thing the health conditions were horrendous. The infant mortality rate was so high that thirty-three per cent of babies born failed to survive past their first birthday. That was little wonder, for such diseases as typhus, measles, malaria, smallpox, and scarlet fever were rampant. Add to that the most famous disease of the time, the Bubonic Plague, or Black Death, which killed without mercy from the lowest peasant to the Royal Families themselves. It wiped out huge percentages of the populations within days during its sporadic outbreaks, one of which occurred during Guerre’s time. However, even if one managed to avoid all of this, the average life expectancy was around forty years old. Essential services were nonexistent. There was very little fresh drinking water and raw sewage ran in the fields and streets. Hygiene was very seldom practiced and people went weeks or months without bathing. Without refrigeration, meats and dairy products spoiled very quickly. Fresh fruits and vegetables were also scarce so scurvy and rickets were commonplace. All of this contributed to an abundance of vermin such as rats and their fleas, which in turn were directly responsible for the Plague. Clothing was simple and mostly handmade for the peasant class, for fabric was expensive and rare. The French peasants, like their counterparts throughout Europe, toiled with the same primitive tools their ancestors had used for centuries. Draft animals such as horses were scant so most of the work was done by hand. The money-based economies were growing for the middle and upper

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Community Health Nursing Essay Example for Free

Community Health Nursing Essay Identification of Community Nestled in Southern Indiana just west of Louisville, Kentucky and south of Indianapolis, Indiana is Dubois County, Indiana. Dubois County is comprised of the towns of Birdseye, Ferdinand, Holland, Huntingburg and Jasper. Of those towns, Jasper is the largest and is the county seat (Kelly School of Business, 2014). Over fifty-two percent of the population consists of adults ranging from 25-64 years of age (Kelly School of Business, 2014). The leading cause of mortality in this county is heart disease, cancer, suicide and injuries (Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). According to the 2011 health rankings of the county, Dubois County was higher in the benchmark of poor health, adult obesity, adult smoking, excessive drinking, motor vehicle crash death rate and teen birth rate than the national benchmarks (Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Industry overview consists of manufacturing, transportation/warehousing, health care, and finance/insurance with manufacturing providing the majority of the jobs at an average wage per job of $54,000 in 2010(Memorial Hospital And Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Obesity in the county grew to 28.9% in 2008 compared to 26.8% in 2006(Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Physical inactivity also increased in the two year span growing from 20.9% in 2006 to 24.5% in 2008(Memorial Hospital And Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Summary of Tools Population Economic Status Assessment The Population Economic Status Assessment of the county was utilized to obtain the population estimates, cultural diversity, income levels, poverty among children and unemployment rates. In 2013 the population estimates of 42, 361 were found in Dubois County (United States Census Bureau, 2014). Of  these, the cultural demographics of 98% were white and 6.4% were Hispanic or Latino (United States Census Bureau, 2014). In 2011, Dubois County provided only 0.6% of the births in Indiana and 0.7% of the deaths (Kelly School of Business, 2014). The median household income was $54,168 and 7.9% were below poverty level wen the span of 2008-2012 was studied (United States Census Bureau, 2014). The rate of poverty among children in Dubois County was under 10% in 2010(Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). A 7.5% unemployment rate in 2010 was seen as well as an increase in families receiving temporary assistance (Memorial Hospital and Health Care Cen ter Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Neighborhood/Community Safety Inventory Environmental safety hazards present in Dubois County range from air pollution, invasive animal species, climate, and resources. Air pollution is a byproduct of the manufacturing industry. The Particulate Matter measurement in 2010 was 27.2ug/m3 which contributes to the asthma and cancer rates in the community (Air Quality, 2012). Another environmental concern is the possible conversion of a coal-fired plant into an incinerator of biomass which also threatens to worsen the respiratory issues of the population (Healthy Dubois County, 2014). Invasive animal species of the county include the Emerald Ash Borer and Gypsy moth who could deforest the trees and shrubs thereby threatening our environment (Dubois County Soil and Water Conservation District, 2014). The climate is humid and the annual precipitation is spread throughout the year (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2014). The soil is flat and provides poor drainage thus placing the county at risk for flooding (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2014). Cultural Assessment Tool The primary cultural groups of Dubois County are whites with German ancestry and a growing Latino population. The numbers of females to males of both cultures is approximately 50:50(Dubois County, n.d.) Religious affiliations of the community include Catholics, Lutheran, Methodist and Mormon with Catholics being approximately 71% of the population (Onboard Informatics, 2013). Disaster Assessment Planning Guide Dubois Countys disaster preparedness plans and resources are maintained by the county health department. The four major areas of focus include: acts of nature, such as floods and tornados; disease outbreaks, such as influenza and Hepatitis; accidents, including chemical spills; and terrorist acts (Dubois County Health Department, 2012). With such disasters the most vulnerable populations are the young and old, who are the most likely to be affected by a disaster. Public agencies such as the Red Cross, Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center, Dubois County Health Department are a few of the local agencies that can offer resources and aid to those individuals during times of crisis. Ethnicity issues related to disaster are language barriers of those who have recently traveled to the area. Windshield Survey The environment of Dubois County is a mix of urban and rural areas that are rich in history. In Jasper, IN there are eighteen parks located in this county seat of Dubois County. They are well maintained by the Parks and Recreation Department of the town. The homes in Jasper overall are well maintained and landscaping includes a mix of trees, shrubs and flowers. The home lot size ranges from small to large as you progress away from the downtown area. Older homes are more focused in the downtown area and newer homes are being developed in the outer areas of town. Not all of the homes have access to sidewalks or walking trails within walking distance. The Patoka River flows through the town and a recreational railway also passes through the town. Residents take advantage of the river front area with a river walk pathway that passes 2.1 miles along the river. The river walk and pavilion area along the river and parks provide common areas for families and fitness enthusiast. Other gathering places include a number of restaurants and bars in town. These restaurants are fast food, fast-casual and bar/grill type establishments. Transportation includes personal vehicles and public transportation. Schools include five primary education schools, one high school and one community college. There are over 50 dentists, 18 family practice, 5 pediatricians and 38 nursing homes/skilled/assisted living agencies in Jasper. The community business owners work hard to build up the town and county through such organizations as Dubois Strong and Greater Downtown Jasper Business Association. Dubois Strongs focus is to support business growth through marketing to access to capital to help new  and existing business to thrive. Diversity can be seen in the growth of Hispanic churches/mass times, Hispanic food stores, and restaurants. Population Health Scavenger Hunt The Dubois County Health Departments target population is the residents of Dubois County and to support the health of the county. The county website promotes the health department and the health department advertises in the local news media with regards to upcoming events and programs. The Jasper Chamber of Commerce promotes local businesses, new resident information, recreation activities, recycling programs, and more. The director of the chamber is also active in promoting the improvement and activities within the city through news media and working with various committees. Both the fire and police department are housed within the city center of Jasper and both provide programs for children in addition to keeping our city safe. The police department provides schools with the DARE program for drug prevention. The City of Jasper, through the service of various agencies, houses a community food bank, energy assistance program, foreclosure prevention services and health family promotio n program for those who qualify. Description of Selected Community Dubois County is a community built with German ancestry that has diversified over the years to include a Hispanic/Latino population. Individuals within the population are proactive in keeping the community thriving in this ever changing environment. Growth of the various cultures can be seen in the development of Hispanic churches and food stores. Cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of mortality in 2006-2008(Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Health disease prevention is provided through programs through the hospital and availably of outside activities found in the river walk and parks in the area. Interpretation of Data When comparing the number of births and deaths in Dubois County to Indiana as a whole, the numbers are even, in comparison. Yet in international migration, the county ranks 23 out of 92 counties (Kelly School of Business, 2014). In examination of the leading causes of death in the county, most young people die due to injury and older people die from either cancer or heart disease. Conclusions could be made from this data. A population who is primarily employed by manufacturing facilities could be the source of the accidents in the young and the environmental agents from these plants may cause death in the elderly after multiple years of exposure. Also, another causative factor to consider is the availability of fast food linked to the increased mortality from heart disease. Problems in the Selected Community When the leading causes of mortality in Dubois County with regards to the Healthy People 2020 goals are examined, the topics of Heart Disease and Stroke, Nutrition and Weight Status and Cancer appear to be the top three problems for this community. Heart disease and stroke are leading causes of mortality in America and therefore lend themselves to an increase in healthcare cost (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Prevention of these events can start with control of blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, improved diet and increase in physical activity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Controlling these risk factors is therefore one of the goals of Healthy People 2020 as they attempt to ameliorate the health of the nation through health promotion and prevention. Not only does improving ones nutrition and weight decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke, but it will also aid in the prevention of other diseases including cancer. The Healthy People 2020 goal of Nutrition and Weight Status not only looks at an individuals diet, but increasing household food security and eliminating hunger (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). With the accessibility of fast food, increased physical inactivity and environmental safety concerns over the past few years, these goals for health promotion and prevention are applicable to this community. The resources in the community along with the communitys desire to care for its members should help this community thrive. Problem in Relation to Goals Healthy People 2020 are science based goals for â€Å"improving the health of all Americans† (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). It â€Å"established benchmarks and monitored progress over time in order to encourage collaboration across communities and sectors, empower individuals toward making informed health decisions, and measure the impact of prevention activities† over a ten year period( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Through the identification of a community’s health needs, a community can determine the health priorities and opportunities for improvement† (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). This process helps the community to live â€Å"longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death† (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Therefore looking at the Dubois County community’s health concerns for heart disease and stroke, the goal of nutrition and weight status is a great starting point for improving the health of the community. As the individual lives of the community members improve so will the county. A healthy community is a thriving community. Poor nutrition has been linked to heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. Not only is nutrition an individuals choice, but resources must be accessible for proper nutrition and exercise. Fresh produce through Farmers Markets, health promotion through work, and accessible healthy activities for the public are a few solutions to support the community as they strive to ameliorate their lives. Availability of Community Resources A variety of organizations throughout the community provide services to improve the nutrition and health of those it serves. The Greater Downtown Business Association hosts a Farmers Market every Saturday morning from May through October. Not only does this provide locally grown produce to the community, but it also offers a positive social gathering for families and those interested in improving their nutrition. Many of the local churches and organizations offer 5K run/walk opportunities throughout the county as well. Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center offers fitness and nutrition classes for the community as part of their mission to Be for others. Primary Prevention Topic My primary prevention topic is the prevention of overweight and obesity by means of healthy nutrition and physical activity. Amelioration of health will reduce the disease risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer in our community. A successful community starts with healthy individuals. Use of Questions The largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in Dubois County is poor nutrition either through lack of education or resources. The businesses and organizations are trying to improve the nutrition/physical fitness of the community by offering classes, walk/runs and other means of health promotions through media promotion. The local physicians have discussed services on local radio programs, through seminars at the hospital and in articles in the local papers. There is also a community food bank and farmers market. The most recent controversial community health concern published by the news media is that of the proposed biomass plant to be initiated in the old power plant location. There has been community involvement by community leaders and individuals to keep this from happening due to the concern of air quality. As it stands, the company that was going to initiate the transition to biomass has recently revoked their commitment to the project. Most people in the community are concerned about staying healthy for a better quality of life, but they may just not realize all the free or low cost resources available to them. Local news media advertise the hospital programs available and promote the local fitness activities available. Education needs to remain a constant to inform the community of the opportunities available to them. As mentioned previously, most of the emergency room visits are due to injuries/accidents, but cardiology issues is the top hospital inpatient discharge diagnosis (Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011). Therefore focus on prevention and treatment of heart disease is of paramount importance. Focusing on prevention will improve the longevity of this community. Quality of life in the community is reduced by the prevalence of multiple factories in the area. As previously mentioned, the air quality has impacted the community’s rate of asthma and cancer. Imp roving quality of life needs to include improving air quality. References 2011 Dubois County Health Needs Assessment (Memorial Hospital and Health Care Center Dubois County Health Department, 2011) Retrieved from www.duboiscountyin.org/stories/2011dchealthassess.pdf Air Quality. (2012). Indiana County of Dubois Government Website. Retrieved from www.duboiscountyin.org City Data: Dubois County, Indiana. (Onboard Informatics, 2013). Retrieved April 22, 2014 from www.city-data.com/county/Dubois_County-IN.html Dubois County. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/DuboisCounty,Indiana Dubois County Health Department (2012). Indiana County of Dubois Government Website. Retrieved from www.duboiscountyin.org Dubois County Indiana Profile (Kelly School of Business, 2014). Retrieved from www.stats.indiana.edu Flood Insurance Study: Dubois County, Indiana and Incorporated Areas (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2014). Retrieved from in.gov Healthy Dubois County (Healthy Dubois County, 2014). Retrieved from www.healthyduboiscounty.org Invasive Animal Species Information (Dubois County Soil and Water Conservation District, 2014). Retrieved from www.duboisswcd.org State County Quick Facts: Dubois County, Indiana (United States Census Bureau, 2014). Retrieved from www.quickfacts.census.gov. U.S . Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). About Healthy People. HealthyPeople.gov. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2013). Nutrition and Weight Status. HealthyPeople.gov. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=29 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2013). Heart Disease and Stroke. HealthyPeople.gov. Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=21

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Hemp Essay -- essays research papers fc

Throughout American history our country has come to rely on many different natural resources. With technology and the population increasing, the number of fossil fuel reserves and natural forests are going down. What America needs is a renewable source of fuels and fibers that will meet the growing needs of the future, but will not damage our environment. One of the most promising sources of fiber, fuel, and natural oil is hemp. Hemp, also known as Cannabis Sativa L, has been used in our country since the early 17th century (Schreiber 160). Although hemp is considered an illegal drug, many people forget that it is a part of our country’s history. Despite its negative connotations, hemp has the potential to revolutionize the paper, cotton, and fuel industries. Its long fibers can be weaved with others to make stronger clothing, while its pulp can be used to make stronger paper. It has been known as an important resource for thousands of years, and in the future, perhaps it will be again. Hemp is a plant that originated in Asia several thousand years ago (Schreiber 7). Its genus is called Cannabis, to which there are three sub species, Sativa, Indica, and Ruderalis. Hemp is of the sativa family, which normally grows to about 4 meters and has a hollow, fibrous stem. When grown industrially, the male plant is used primarily because it grows tall and spindly, producing the most fiber, and allowing the farmer to plant more in a smaller area. The female plant is much shorter, and produces buds. Hemp is often confused with another plant of the same genus, Marijuana. Because of this confusion it is imperative that the differences between these two plants are understood. Although very similar, Marijuana is not the same plant as hemp (Williams 2). Marijuana, also known as pot, hashish, or weed, is grown for its buds and leaves, to produce psychoactive effects when introduced into the human body. Marijuana has high levels of THC (Delta-9 Tetrahydracannibinol), the i ngredient that causes the user to be high. Whereas industrial hemp typically has a THC level less than one percent, marijuana can have levels up to twenty percent (Washuk 1). Med Byrd, head paper scientist at NCSU said, "You couldn't get high off hemp even if you smoked a joint the size of a telephone pole." Hemp is also contains a substance called cannibidiol, which actually inhibits THC. Under ... ...come the worlds leading crop again, as it once was. Bibliography Barnard, Jeff. â€Å"Hemps Profile Getting Higher But Marijuana Factor Still a Bummer.† Los Angeles Times [Electric Library] 23 August 1998 Cauchon, Dennis. â€Å"Canadian Hemp Isn’t Going to Pot.† USA Today [Electric Library] 7 October 1998. Pg13A Jenkins, Phil. â€Å"Field Of Opportunity.† Canadian Geographic [Electric Library] 1 March 1999 Julin, Brian. â€Å"The Hemp FAQ.† www.cannabis.com/faqs/hemp1.shtml 1994 Kicklighter, Kirk. â€Å"Getting Hemp Over The Hump.† The News & Observer [Electric Library] 4 July 1998. McDougal, Jeanette. â€Å"Good Reasons to Stay Skeptical About Legalizing Industrial Hemp.† Minneapolis Start Tribune [Electric Library] 29 April 1999. Pg24A McGraw, Dan. â€Å"Hemp is High Fashion.† U.S. News & World Report [Electric Library] 20 January 1997 Pg54-56 Quinn, Patrick. â€Å"Greeks Seek to Weed Out Hemp.† The Associated Press News Service [Electric Library] 13 November 1998 Schreiber, Gisela. The Hemp Handbook. Great Britain: Vision Paperbacks, 1999. Williams, Ted. â€Å"Legalize It!† Audubon Magazine [Email] November 1999. Washuk, Bonnie. â€Å"Hemp Touted as a Better Paper Source.† Sun Journal [Electric Library] 5 April 1998.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Voltaire and Pope

Use of Reason to Support Polarized Viewpoints During the Enlightenment great thinkers began to question all things. Rather than just believe in something because an authority (church, political authority, society) claimed it to be true, these men and women set out to find the truth through reason, to provide explanations for all actions and events. Both Alexander Pope and Voltaire discuss some of the more common questions posed during the Enlightenment: What is the nature of humanity and what is our role in the greater picture of the universe?Pope argues that everything in the universe, whether it is good or evil, is essentially perfect because is a part of God’s grand plan. In essence, Pope believed in pre-determined fate, where no matter our actions, our fate remains the same as it was decided upon before you were born. Voltaire will critique this viewpoint by exploring the negative results of the belief that blind faith will lead to the best possible result and that man doe s exercise free will.While Pope’s â€Å"Essay on Man† and Voltaire’s Candide are derived from polarized viewpoints and speak about a very different set of beliefs, they both use the same fundamental concept of reason to provide the basis of their argument. Alexander Pope set out to write his â€Å"Essay on Man† to use reason to justify his viewpoints of optimism, predetermined fate, and God’s use of both good and evil for balance in the universe.Pope begins the essay by claiming that man can only reason about things in which he has experience with and goes on to illustrate that our limited knowledge is not capable of understanding God’s systems by questioning, â€Å"What can we reason, but from what we know? † (17) He uses the reason that since man can only understand what is within the scope of his knowledge that he cannot expect to comprehend the greater systems that God knows intimately. Pope also believes deeply of in the Great Ch ain of Being and it is the foundation on which his arguments rest.This chain is a concept derived from the classical period and is a notion that all elements of the universe have a proper place in a divinely planned hierarchical order, which was pictured as a vertically extended chain (Renaissance). In its most simplistic form God would be at the top of the chain, man would be directly beneath it, and all other beings that existed would be beneath man. In the 2nd section of the essay, Pope begins by mocking men who do not know their own limits within the universe. He exclaims, â€Å"Presumptuous Man!The reason wouldst though find, / Why formed so weak, so little, and so blind? † (Pope 35-36) He goes on to say that man is not created in a perfect state and that all men have limitations by nature. He continues with the claim â€Å"say not Man’s imperfect, Heaven in fault; / Say rather, Man’s as perfect as he ought: / His knowledge measured to his state and place; / His time a moment, and a point his space† (69-72). Pope is reasoning that the limitations and imperfections in man are necessary for man’s place beneath God in the universe and the Great Chain of Being.Section III begins with Pope stating that God keeps the future fate of all creatures from them in order to protect them; that all beings are blessed to only be dealing with their present state. He reasons this by questioning if the lamb would happily †lick the hand just raised to shed his blood† (Pope 84). This symbolizes the predetermined fate that is made from God regardless of our actions and that only God is capable of knowing what the future has in store for all of the universe.In Section V, Pope reasons that God and nature have greater powers than man by speaking about the terrible effects that natural disasters, such as earthquakes, have with little resistance from man, â€Å"But All subsists by elemental strife; / And Passions are the elements of L ife. / The general Order, since the whole began, / Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man† (169-172). He is speaking of these horrific and evil events as being a part of God’s almighty cause, that evil is always balanced by good.Pope concludes the first epistle of â€Å"An Essay on Man† with the thought that all that is within in the world is the way it should be as a result of God’s plan: All Nature is but Art, unkown to thee; All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony not understood; All partial Evil, universal Good: And, spite of Pride, in erring Reason’s spite, One Truth is clear, WHATEVER is, IS RIGHT. (289-294) This belief that all that is is the best there is and that man has no control over his own destiny is a central component to the philosophical view of optimism.With an â€Å"Essay on Man† Pope uses reason to explain man’s role in the Great Chain of Being and that there is predetermined fate establ ished by God. While â€Å"An Essay on Man† is a poetic verse which uses reason to justify the viewpoints of optimism, predetermined fate, and God’s use of both good and evil for balance, Voltaire’s Candide is a satirical critique of the essay, while using reason to argue against the belief system of optimism.In Candide, the main character is raised in a home with a tutor name Pangloss who teaches Candide that â€Å"things cannot be otherwise than they are, for since everything is made to serve an end, everything necessarily serves the best end† (Voltaire 356). Voltaire is using the character of Pangloss and his teachings to symbolize Alexander Pope and is mocking Pope’s beliefs as the novel continues. Through Candide’s story, Voltaire will provide the evidence that disproves the belief that all that is, is right.The first of many terrible experiences that Candide goes through is when he is kicked out of the Baron’s castle for being ca ught kissing the Baron’s daughter Cunegonde. Upon being kicked out, a hungry, homeless, and broke Candide finds himself at a tavern where he is offered money and a drink from two strangers. Candide naively thinks back to Pangloss and that everything is for the best, that this is his fate, but is quickly transported into a cruel and violent military life where he is forced to endure physical hardships.Here Voltaire shows that the military’s giving of money to Candide was irrationally thought to be for the better, while it was really a ploy to capture Candide into being a soldier where he witnesses cruelty, violence, and evil – all reasonable evidence against Pangloss teachings. These horrible events are not fate or God’s balancing act, but this is the beginning of Candide’s witness to man doing evil to another man with no greater good in sight.Pangloss attempts to reason that catching syphilis is a part of the best of worlds by claiming that â€Å" if Columbus had not caught, on an American island, this sickness †¦ we should have neither chocolate nor cochineal† (Voltaire 361). Here Voltaire again critiques the irrational use of reason to support the belief that all that is, is for the best. After witnessing Pangloss’ hanging and being flogged himself, Candide asks himself, â€Å" If this is the best of all possible worlds, what are the others like? †¦ was it necessary for me to watch you being hanged, for no reason hat I can see? † (Voltaire 364) Here Candide is beginning to see these horrific tragedies as evidence that evidence and is using his reason to ponder that perhaps not all that happens in the world is for the best. Voltaire uses the experience of different characters in Candide to reason that evil is derived from mankind and freewill, not predetermined fate from God. One notable tragedy is that of the old woman who was born into a world of privilege and high class, but suffered through violence, rape, and slavery before meeting Candide.When the old woman asks Candide and Cunegonde to â€Å"ask every passenger on this ship to tell you his story, and if you find a single one who has not often cursed the day of his birth, †¦ then you may throw me overboard head first† Voltaire is reminding the reader of the importance of reason through investigation (373). As the story continues, Candide comes across an old and wise scholar named Martin. Voltaire uses this character to symbolize all the negative and pessimistic viewpoints that counter the optimistic ideal that all exists, exists for the best.Martin uses the evidence of his travels and experience to argue that there is nothing but evil in the world, which serves no purpose: â€Å" I have scarcely seen one town which did not wish to destroy its neighboring town, no family which did not wish to exterminate some other family† (Voltaire 389). The terrible history of Martin and his experiences are Voltai re’s evidence that not all that exists in the world is for the common good, which is contrary to Pangloss’ view that â€Å"private misfortunes make for public welfare† (Voltaire 361).While Martin may be a pessimist, he does believe in predetermined fate and by the time Candide and he are together, Candide, through his own experiences of the world, has begun to believe in free will. Through Candide’s travels Voltaire has shown the reader that not all that happens in this world happens for the greater good or is predetermined by God. At the end of many journeys that result in unjustifiably cruel tragedies, Candide, with all of the other characters, makes the choice to live simply in a garden and mind to it. While this view that one can proceed through life and make their own choices and determinations in the world is ontrary to Pope’s idea of predetermined fate according to the Greater Cause, both writers attempt to validate their claims through reas on. Works Cited Pope, Alexander. â€Å"Essay on Man. † The Norton Anthology of World Literature. 3rd Edition. Vol D. Martin Puchner ed. New York: Norton, 2012. 344-351. Print. â€Å"Renaissance. † Academic. brooklyn. cuny. edu. Brooklyn College, 30 Mar. 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. . Voltaire, Francois de Arouet. Candide. The Norton Antology of World Literature. 3rd Edition. Vol D. Martin Puchner ed. New York: Norton, 20

Monday, January 6, 2020

Classic Medieval Romanticism in La Belle Dame sans...

Romanticism can be broadly defined as that which is `the fabulous, the extravagant, the fictitious and the unreal. The words Romantic and Romanticism were applied to or used for a literary trend in English literature of the last quarter of 18th and mid-nineteenth century to refer to various tendencies. Later the term Romanticism was applied to `resurgence of extinct and emotion which could not be suppressed by the `rationalism of the 18th century and a low key revolt could be heard in some literary works. Some romanticists are amorous of the far, they try to escape from the familiar or real world of sufferings, pain and mutability to an imaginary world. In his effort to create a world of Beauty or a utopia a romantic poet may move†¦show more content†¦The ballad used little description, it narrated very few incidents and the details of the story were presented in a straight forward manner. The themes of the old ballads were usually love and war, an exciting adventure, a loss , a family disaster, usually they contained supernatural elements. Many legends concerning `women were current during the dim and shadowy Middle Ages. The beauty of the Fatal Woman or Femme Fatale was a curse to the mankind. These women were often presented as enchantress, witches, sirens, mermaids or serpent women who lured men by their strange (`wild) beauty to their ruin or death. The Lady of Keatss ballad is a fatal woman of medieval romance. The title itself suggests that she is a beautiful lady without any pity who ruins the life of a knight. In this ballad La Belle Keats has depicted a cheated soul. Flight into visionary experience and back again is expressed by means of well-known motif of a mortals ruinous love for a supernatural lady. La Belle is a dramatic verse narrative in which the speaker comes across a woeful knight at arms in a desolate winter setting. He asks the knight why he is loitering aimlessly, all alone, in this cold landscape, why he looks so pale, pale and lifeless. The knight narrates his eerie experience. He tells that he met a `beauty (a fairys child) in the mead and fell passionately in love with her. He rode with her to her elfin grot where the